Unlikely


[jLanguage default=”british”][italian][/italian][british][/british]
[british]By Dario Rivarossa[/british]
[italian]Di Dario Rivarossa[/italian]

[british]

GALILEO AND HIS DADA DEFENDER

[/british]
[italian]

GALILEO E IL SUO AVVOCATO DADAISTA

[/italian]
[british]

If any subject deserves more than others to be dealt with in this column called “Unlikely”, it probably is Tommaso Campanella’s book “In Defence of Galileo”, written in 1616 in order to persuade the Vatican of the fact that Galileo Galilei’s ideas about astronomy (i.e. the Copernican standpoint, according to which the Sun is in the centre of the universe and the Earth spins around it) was not against the teachings in the Bible, as well as in the Catholic tradition.

[/british]
[italian]

Un clamoroso esempio di approccio “zen” (1) alla vita è l’Apologia di Galileo scritta da Tommaso Campanella nel 1616 allo scopo di convincere il Vaticano che il sistema copernicano difeso dallo scienziato toscano non si opponeva alla Bibbia né alla tradizione cattolica.

[/italian]

6521

[british]

A very noble aim, all the more so as Campanella did not share many of Galileo’s views, and in spite of this he was the only one who did attempt such a defence.It did not succeed.

Not only because the Vatican judges – the well and sadly known Inquisition – had to play their role as “the villains”, but also because Campanella himself acted in a way that, according to us, was wonderfully Dada, but which of course could hardly be expected to achieve its goal under those circumstances.

First of all, the philosopher-monk was himself in prison at that time, since his ideas were also suspected to be heretical. In fact, Galileo even tried to hide the “friendship” existing between the two of them: it could not but worsen his own position.

But, above all, Campanella’s whole line of defence was as crazy as possible. This makes him dear and nice to us, but not so with the Inquisition… Just summing it up: in order to show that Galileo was right, he kept on quoting authors like Origen and Giordano Bruno (!!!), that is, in the eyes of the Papal theologians, the outdated thinker who was considered the master of all mistakes, and the fiendish criminal who has been burnt alive in Rome not many years before.

Moreover, Campanella could not help referring, again and again, to the conjecture of other worlds scattered all over the universe, inhabited by beings maybe quite different from man, and maybe not needing to be saved from sin. A good plot for “E.T. – Philosopher’s Cut”, that unfortunately was not the case.

So, poor Galileo, poor Campanella, poor judges, after so many struggles, it finally turns out that you all were wrong. There doesn’t exist any fixed point among the stars, neither Earth not Sun. But is precisely about the way science and knowledge should work that Fr. Tommaso left us his most intriguing legacy.
A definitely Zen approach.

The principles of any true research in fact, according to Campanella who adapts some sentences by St. Bernard, Pope Leo the Great and St. Paul, are the following:
– As long as you stick to things, you won’t get new ones;
– If someone believes that he has already found, he does not find what he is looking for: he looks in vain;
– Those who think they know, they don’t know “how” they should know.[/british]

[italian]

Uno scopo di grande nobiltà, tanto più che Campanella non condivideva molte idee di Galileo, ma ciononostante fu l’unico a muovere un dito per difenderlo.

Ma non funzionò. E non solo perché i famigerati inquisitori dovevano interpretare il proprio ruolo di “cattivi di turno”, ma anche perché il frate filosofo agì in un modo che, secondo noi, era un capolavoro dadaista, ma che ben difficilmente in quelle circostanze poteva sperare di ottenere qualcosa.

Anzitutto, lui stesso all’epoca si trovava in carcere, siccome il suo stesso sistema di pensiero era in odore di eresia. Tant’è vero che Galileo fece del suo meglio per tenere nascosta quell’amicizia compromettente, che non poteva fare altro che peggiorare le cose.

Ma, soprattutto, l’intera linea di difesa adottata da Campanella era pura follia. Il che ce lo rende simpaticissimo, ma non ebbe lo stesso effetto sull’Inquisizione… Tanto per capirci: per dimostrare che Galileo aveva ragione, il frate calabrese continuò a chiamare in causa autori come Origene e Giordano Bruno (!!!), vale a dire – agli occhi di Roma – l’antico ed emarginato teologo, considerato il padre di tutte le eresie, e il demonio incarnato che era stato messo al rogo non molti anni prima. Per giunta, Campanella non riusciva a fare a meno di citare a ogni piè sospinto l’ipotesi dell’esistenza di “altri mondi” sparsi per l’universo, abitati da esseri forse molto diversi dagli umani e forse non bisognosi di redenzione. Un ottimo plot per un E.T. – Philosopher’s Cut, peccato che non fosse il momento adatto.

Ma, povero Galileo, povero Campanella, poveri giudici, dopo tante fatiche e tanto sangue, viene fuori che vi sbagliavate tutti: non esiste nessun “punto fisso” nel cosmo, né la Terra né il Sole. E però, è proprio sul modo in cui dovrebbero procedere la scienza e, in generale, la conoscenza che il frate filosofo ci ha lasciato l’eredità più preziosa.
E quanto di più buddista. I principi di ogni ricerca autentica, secondo Campanella che riadatta alcune sentenze di san Bernardo di Chiaravalle, papa Leone Magno e san Paolo, sono infatti i seguenti:
– Dum ita retines, aliud non accipies (finché trattieni, non ricevi altro);
– Qui putat se invenisse, non reperit quaesita, sed in inquisitione deficit circa divina (nelle realtà divine, chi ritiene di avere trovato qualcosa non ha raggiunto lo scopo, ma fallisce la ricerca);
– Nec, qui putant se scire… hi sciunt, quomodo oporteat eos scire (coloro che ritengono di sapere, non sanno “come” bisogna sapere).

[/italian]

Dario Rivarossa

[italian]

1) Il senso che in questo caso Dario offre a “zen” è tutto suo… mym

[/italian]

[jLanguage default=”italian”][italian][/italian][british][/british]

SHANGRI-LA (a c. di DR)
6710

[italian]C’è un luogo in cui qualcosa è nella misura in cui è qualcos’altro.
C’è una terra dove Dio ha nome Non-Qui.
C’è un uomo il cui ritratto è l’opposto di sé.[/italian]
[british]There is a place where a thing is insofar
as it is otherwise.
There is a land where God’s name sounds like “Not-Here”.
There is a man whose picture is the opposite as his picture.[/british]

(altro…)

Questo sito utilizza cookies per permettere la navigazione di base e l'autenticazione utente. Inoltre viene tenuto conto delle visite tramite Google Analytics. Nessun dato viene condiviso con soggetti terzi. View more
Cookies settings
Accetta
Rifiuta
Privacy & Cookie policy
Privacy & Cookies policy
Cookie name Active

Privacy Policy

What information do we collect?

We collect information from you when you register on our site or place an order. When ordering or registering on our site, as appropriate, you may be asked to enter your: name, e-mail address or mailing address.

What do we use your information for?

Any of the information we collect from you may be used in one of the following ways: To personalize your experience (your information helps us to better respond to your individual needs) To improve our website (we continually strive to improve our website offerings based on the information and feedback we receive from you) To improve customer service (your information helps us to more effectively respond to your customer service requests and support needs) To process transactions Your information, whether public or private, will not be sold, exchanged, transferred, or given to any other company for any reason whatsoever, without your consent, other than for the express purpose of delivering the purchased product or service requested. To administer a contest, promotion, survey or other site feature To send periodic emails The email address you provide for order processing, will only be used to send you information and updates pertaining to your order.

How do we protect your information?

We implement a variety of security measures to maintain the safety of your personal information when you place an order or enter, submit, or access your personal information. We offer the use of a secure server. All supplied sensitive/credit information is transmitted via Secure Socket Layer (SSL) technology and then encrypted into our Payment gateway providers database only to be accessible by those authorized with special access rights to such systems, and are required to?keep the information confidential. After a transaction, your private information (credit cards, social security numbers, financials, etc.) will not be kept on file for more than 60 days.

Do we use cookies?

Yes (Cookies are small files that a site or its service provider transfers to your computers hard drive through your Web browser (if you allow) that enables the sites or service providers systems to recognize your browser and capture and remember certain information We use cookies to help us remember and process the items in your shopping cart, understand and save your preferences for future visits, keep track of advertisements and compile aggregate data about site traffic and site interaction so that we can offer better site experiences and tools in the future. We may contract with third-party service providers to assist us in better understanding our site visitors. These service providers are not permitted to use the information collected on our behalf except to help us conduct and improve our business. If you prefer, you can choose to have your computer warn you each time a cookie is being sent, or you can choose to turn off all cookies via your browser settings. Like most websites, if you turn your cookies off, some of our services may not function properly. However, you can still place orders by contacting customer service. Google Analytics We use Google Analytics on our sites for anonymous reporting of site usage and for advertising on the site. If you would like to opt-out of Google Analytics monitoring your behaviour on our sites please use this link (https://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout/)

Do we disclose any information to outside parties?

We do not sell, trade, or otherwise transfer to outside parties your personally identifiable information. This does not include trusted third parties who assist us in operating our website, conducting our business, or servicing you, so long as those parties agree to keep this information confidential. We may also release your information when we believe release is appropriate to comply with the law, enforce our site policies, or protect ours or others rights, property, or safety. However, non-personally identifiable visitor information may be provided to other parties for marketing, advertising, or other uses.

Registration

The minimum information we need to register you is your name, email address and a password. We will ask you more questions for different services, including sales promotions. Unless we say otherwise, you have to answer all the registration questions. We may also ask some other, voluntary questions during registration for certain services (for example, professional networks) so we can gain a clearer understanding of who you are. This also allows us to personalise services for you. To assist us in our marketing, in addition to the data that you provide to us if you register, we may also obtain data from trusted third parties to help us understand what you might be interested in. This ‘profiling’ information is produced from a variety of sources, including publicly available data (such as the electoral roll) or from sources such as surveys and polls where you have given your permission for your data to be shared. You can choose not to have such data shared with the Guardian from these sources by logging into your account and changing the settings in the privacy section. After you have registered, and with your permission, we may send you emails we think may interest you. Newsletters may be personalised based on what you have been reading on theguardian.com. At any time you can decide not to receive these emails and will be able to ‘unsubscribe’. Logging in using social networking credentials If you log-in to our sites using a Facebook log-in, you are granting permission to Facebook to share your user details with us. This will include your name, email address, date of birth and location which will then be used to form a Guardian identity. You can also use your picture from Facebook as part of your profile. This will also allow us and Facebook to share your, networks, user ID and any other information you choose to share according to your Facebook account settings. If you remove the Guardian app from your Facebook settings, we will no longer have access to this information. If you log-in to our sites using a Google log-in, you grant permission to Google to share your user details with us. This will include your name, email address, date of birth, sex and location which we will then use to form a Guardian identity. You may use your picture from Google as part of your profile. This also allows us to share your networks, user ID and any other information you choose to share according to your Google account settings. If you remove the Guardian from your Google settings, we will no longer have access to this information. If you log-in to our sites using a twitter log-in, we receive your avatar (the small picture that appears next to your tweets) and twitter username.

Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act Compliance

We are in compliance with the requirements of COPPA (Childrens Online Privacy Protection Act), we do not collect any information from anyone under 13 years of age. Our website, products and services are all directed to people who are at least 13 years old or older.

Updating your personal information

We offer a ‘My details’ page (also known as Dashboard), where you can update your personal information at any time, and change your marketing preferences. You can get to this page from most pages on the site – simply click on the ‘My details’ link at the top of the screen when you are signed in.

Online Privacy Policy Only

This online privacy policy applies only to information collected through our website and not to information collected offline.

Your Consent

By using our site, you consent to our privacy policy.

Changes to our Privacy Policy

If we decide to change our privacy policy, we will post those changes on this page.
Save settings
Cookies settings